Two different versions of a keyword, advertisement, website, web/landing page, banner design or variable and see which performs the best. You test version A vs. version B to see how different versions perform.
Above the fold (Website)
A term, derived from printed media, which is used to indicate whether a banner advertisement or other content is displayed on a web page without the need to scroll the page usually at the top right hand side position.
A marketing partner that promotes your product or services under a pay-for-results agreement.
Affiliate networks / Site
A reciprocal arrangement between a company and third-party sites where traffic is directed to the company from third-party sites through banner advertisements and links and incentives. In return for linking to the destination site the third-party site will typically receive a proportion of any resulting sale.
An algorithm is a set of finite, ordered steps for solving a mathematical problem. Each Search Engine uses a proprietary algorithm set to calculate the relevance of its indexed web pages to your particular Query.
Algorithmic results are the ranked listings search engines provide in response to a Query. They are often referred to as Organic Listings in contrast to Paid Listings.
Allowable Cost Per Acquisition
A target maximum cost for generating leads or new customers profitably.
Alt tags appear after an image tag and contain a phrase associated with that image.
Analytics refers to all the technology, programming, and data used in Search Engine Marketing to analyze a website’s performance or the success of an Internet marketing campaign.
Also known as link text, anchor text is the visible, clickable text between the HTML anchor and tags. Clicking on anchor text activates a Hyperlink to another web site.
Animated Banner Advertisements
Banner advertisements involving several different images, which are displayed in sequence to help to attract attention to the banner and build up a theme, often ending with a call to action and the injunction to click on the banner.
Software tools running on third party web servers that automatically send a standard reply to the sender of an e-mail message.
Average Page Depth
The average number of pages on a site that visitors view during a single session.
Average Response Value
The average revenue value of each click, calculated as total revenue divided by total clicks.
Also known as back link, backward link, or inbound links, backlinks are all of the links on other websites that direct the users who click on them to your site.
Graphic displayed on a web page for purposes of brand building or driving traffic to a site through clickthrough. Banners may be static or animated.
Black Hat SEO
Black hat SEO is the term used for unethical or deceptive optimization techniques. This includes Spam, Cloaking, or violating search engine rules in any way. If a search engine discovers a site engaging in black hat SEO it will remove that site from its Index.
Also known as banned or delisted, a blacklisted site is a URL that has been removed from a search engine’s Index, typically for engaging in Black Hat SEO. Blacklisted sites are ignored by search engines.
Personal online diary, journal or news source compiled by one person, several people or an organisation.
This shows a percentage of entrances on any given page that resulted in an exit from the page without entering any other page on the site.
The sum of the characteristics of a product or service perceived by the customer (current and prospect).
The brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that add to (or subtract from) a service.
Brand Experience (Internet)
The frequency and depth of interactions with a brand can be enhanced through the Internet.
Brand Identity (Online)
The totality of brand associations including name and symbols that must be communicated to the customers (current or prospective)
The process of creating and evolving successful brands.
Also known as a dead link, a broken link is a link that no longer points to an active destination or Landing Page. Search engines dislike broken links.
Commercial transactions between an organisation and other organisations (inter-organisational marketing).
Business-to-Business Exchanges or Marketplaces
Virtual intermediaries with facilities to enable trading between buyers and sellers.
Commercial transactions between an organisation and consumers.
Defines the daily budget, language, geographic targeting, and location of where the ads are displayed.
Click Fraud is the illegal practice of manipulating Cost-Per-Click (CPC) or Pay-Per-Click (PPC) revenue sharing agreements.
A clickthrough (ad click) occurs each time a user clicks on a banner advertisement which then directs them to a web page that contains further information.
Click-Through Rate (Banner Advertisement)
Calculated as a percentage of total ad impressions, and refers to the proportion of users viewing an advertisement who click on it. It is calculated as the number of clickthroughs divided by the number of ad impressions.
Cloaking is the presentation of alternative pages to a search engine Spider so that it will record different content for a URL than what a human browser would see. Cloaking is typically done to achieve a higher search engine position or to trick users into visiting a site. In such cases cloaking is considered to be Black Hat SEO and the offending URL could be Blacklisted.
An arrangement between two or more companies where they agree to jointly display content and perform joint promotion using brand logos or banner advertisements.
Review of Internet marketing services offered by existing and new competitors in the marketplace and their popularity amongst the customers.
Content is the design, text and graphical information that forms a web page. Good content is the key to attracting customers to a web site and retaining their interest or achieving repeat visits.
Software tools for managing additions and amendments to web site content in real time.
Content (A/B) Testing
Testing the relative effectiveness of multiple versions of the same advertisement, or other content, in referring visitors to a site. Multiple versions of content can be uniquely identified by using a utm_content variable in the URL tag.
Contextual Link Inventory (CLI)
Search engines/advertising networks use their contextual link inventory to match keyword-relevant text-link advertising with site content.
Using marketing communications to maximise conversion of potential customers to actual customers.
Proportion of visitors to a site, or viewers of an advert, who take an action.
Cost Per Action (CPA)
In a cost-per-action advertising revenue system, advertisers are charged a Conversion-based fee, i.e. each time a user buys a product, opens an account, or requests a free trial. CPA is also known as cost-per-acquisition, though the term cost-per-acquisition can be confusing because it also refers to a return on investment model.
Cost Per Acquisition (CPA)
The cost of acquiring a new customer. Typically limited to the communications cost and refers to cost per sale for new customers. May also refer to other outcomes such as cost per quote or enquiry.
Cost Per Click (CPC)
The cost of each click from a referring site to a destination site, typically from a search engine in pay-per-click search marketing.
Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
Also known as cost-per-impression or CPM for cost-per-mille (mille is the Latin word for thousand), cost-per-thousand is an advertising revenue system used by search engines and ad networks in which advertising companies pay an agreed amount for every 1,000 users who see their ads, regardless of whether a click-through or conversion is achieved. CPM is typically used for Banner Ad sales, while Cost-Per-Click is typically used for text link advertising.
Also known as Spider or Robot, a crawler is a search engine program that “crawls” the web, collecting data, following links, making copies of new and updated sites, and storing URLs in the search engine’s Index.
Internet Strategies and techniques used to gain new customers online.
Customer Centric Marketing
An approach to marketing based on detailed knowledge of customer behaviour within the target audience which seeks to fulfil the individual needs and wants of customers.
Knowledge about customers’ needs, characteristics, preferences and behaviours based on analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. Specific insights can be used to inform marketing tactics directed at groups of customers with shared characteristics.
Customer Journey (Online)
A description of end to end buyer behaviour of consumers, including selecting channels to select a company, making purchases, customer service experience and support.
The stages each customer will pass through in a long-term relationship through acquisition, retention and extension.
The desire on the part of the customer to continue to do business with a given supplier over time.
Providing content and services on a web site consistent with the different characteristics of the audience of the site.
Using the web site to find out customers’ specific interests and characteristics.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
A marketing-led approach to building and sustaining long-term business with customers.
Techniques to maintain relationships with existing customers so that they remain loyal and do not defect to the competition.
The extent to which a customer’s expectations of product quality, service quality and price are met.
Identifying key customer segments and targeting them for relationship building.
Also known as a meta description tag, a description tag is a short HTML paragraph that provides search engines with a description of a page’s content for search engine Index purposes.
Identical products are priced differently for different types of customers, markets or buying situations.
The management and execution of marketing using electronic media such as the web, e-mail, interactive TV and wireless media in conjunction with digital data about customers’ characteristics and behaviour. Also know as Emarketing.
Direct Response Marketing
Marketing to customers using one or more advertising media aimed at achieving measurable response and/or transaction.
A directory is an Index of websites compiled by people rather than a Crawler. Directories can be general or divided into specific categories and subcategories. A directory’s servers provide relevant lists of registered sites in response to user queries.
The web address that identifies a web server. It is a unique location of the website is hosted.
Specially constructed pages which feature keywords for particular product searches. These often redirect visitors to a home page.
Prices can be updated in real time according to the type of customer or current market conditions.
Dynamic Web Page
A page that is created in real time, often with reference to a database query, in response to a user request.
E-commerce (Electronic Commerce)
All financial and informational exchanges between a company and the customers carried out electronically, usually on the internet.
E-mail (Electronic Mail) Marketing
Sending messages or documents, such as news about a new product or sales promotion originating from an organisation to the customers (current and prospective).
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
Most Internet sites will have a “FAQ” to explain what is in the area and how to use its features.
A vector based animation programme that has become a popular technology used to deliver content.
Geographical targeting is the focusing of Search Engine Marketing on states, counties, cities and neighbourhoods that are important to a company’s business.
Geographic segmentation is the use of Analytics to categorize a site’s web traffic by the physical locations from which it originated.
Google AdSense is an ad-serving program operated by Google that provides relevant text, image, and video-based advertisements to enrolled site owners. Advertisers register via Google AdWords and pay for ads on a Pay-Per-Click, Cost-Per-Thousand or Cost-Per-Action basis.
Google AdWords is the Keyword Submission program that determines the advertising rates and keywords used in the Google AdSense program. Advertisers bid on the keywords that are relevant to their businesses. Ranked ads then appear as sponsored links on Google Search Engine Results Pages (SERPS) and Google AdSense host sites.
Graphical Search Inventory (GSI)
Graphical Search Inventory is the visual equivalent of Contextual Link Inventory. GSI is non-text-based advertising such as Banner Ads, pop-up ads, browser toolbars, animation, sound, video and other media that is synchronized to relevant Keyword queries.
Gray Hat SEO
Gray hat SEO refers to Search Engine Optimization strategies that fall in between Black Hat SEO and White Hat SEO. Gray hat SEO techniques can be legitimate in some cases and illegitimate in others. Such techniques include Doorway Pages, Gateway Pages, Cloaking and duplicate content.
Hidden text is a generally obsolete form of Black Hat SEO in which pages are filled with a large amount of text that is the same colour as the background, rendering keywords invisible to the human eye but detectable to a search engine Crawler.
A hit is recorded for each graphic or page of text requested from a web server. It is not a reliable measure for the number of people viewing a page. A page impression is a more reliable measure denoting one person viewing one page.
A list of prospect and customer names, e-mail addresses and profile information owned by an organisation.
Any text that that can be chosen by a reader and which causes another document to be retrieved and displayed.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
A standard format used to define the text and layout of web pages. HTML files usually have the extension .HTML or .HTM.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
A standard that defines the way information is transmitted across the Internet.
Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol Secure.
A method of moving between one web site page and another, indicated to the user by text highlighted by underlining and/or a different colour. Hyperlinks can also be achieved by clicking on a graphic image such as a banner advertisement that is linked to another web site.
An index is a Search Engine’s database. It contains all of the information that a Crawler has identified, particularly copies of World Wide Web pages.
Also known as back link, backward link, or backlinks, inbound links are all of the links on other websites that direct the users who click on them to your site.
The physical network that links computers across the globe. It consists of the infrastructure of network servers and communication links between them that are used to hold and transport the vast amount of information on the Internet.
The application of the Internet and related digital technologies in conjunction with traditional communications to achieve marketing objectives.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Metrics used to assess the performance of a process and/or whether goals set are achieved.
Also known as search terms or query terms, keywords are the word(s) or phrase(s) a user enters into a search engine’s Query box. A Search Engine Results Page (SERP) ranks indexed sites according to how relevant the Search Engine deems them to the searched keywords
The landing page is the page on which a visitor “lands” after clicking a search engine listing, email link, Banner Ad, Cost-Per-Click ad, or other ad/link. The landing page can be a site’s homepage, but is usually a page designed to appeal to users who Click-Through a specific ad or link.
Details about a potential customer (prospect).
Lead Generation Offers
Offered in return for customers providing their contact details and characteristics. Commonly used in B2B marketing where free information such as a report or a seminar will be offered.
Lifetime Value (LTV) – Customer
The total net benefit that a customer or group of customers will provide a company over their total relationship with a company.
Also known as hyperlink or HTML link, a link is an image or portion of text that when clicked on by a user opens another web page or jumps the browser to a different portion of the current page.
Link baiting is the creation of content that incites users to link to your page from another website. Link baiting is a White Hat SEO technique used to help a site improve its Link Popularity and Page Rank.
A link exchange is a quid pro quo arrangement or reciprocal link exchange between two sites. Reciprocal links usually lead to the home page of the associate site.
A link farm is a webpage or group of webpages that exist solely to increase the number of Backlinks in a site’s link network. A link farm is meant to increase a site’s PageRank or popularity and thus improve its search engine Position. However, link farms are considered a form of Spam and sites that rely on them are penalized by search engines.
Link popularity is the measure of how popular a webpage is by the number of Backlinks it has. However, link popularity is not solely a matter of quantity.
Also known as anchor text, link text is the visible, clickable text between the HTML anchor and tags. Clicking on link text activates a Hyperlink to another web site.
Listings are the indexed sites that appear in ranked order on a Search Engine Results Page in response to a user Query.
Local search refers to both the addition of geographical keywords (cities, streets, etc.) to Search Terms.
Online a mailing list is an automatically distributed email message on a particular topics going to certain individuals.
Marketing analytics is a branch of Analytics concerned specifically with marketing-related information from organic and paid search engine traffic, such as Unique Visitors, keyword-generated sales, Cost-Per-Click advertising, Click Fraud, Search Engine Marketing, etc.
The series of seven key variables – Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical evidence that are varied by marketers as part of the customer offering.
A logical sequence and a series of activities leading to the setting of marketing objectives and the formulation of plans for achieving them.
Meta Description Tag
Also known as a description Tag, a meta description tag is a short HTML paragraph that provides search engines with a description of a page’s content for search engine Index purposes.
Meta Keywords Tag
A meta keywords tag provides search engines with a list of keywords that are relevant to a webpage.
Meta Search Engines
Meta search engines submit keywords typed by users to a range of search engines in order to increase the number of relevant pages since different search engines may have indexed different sites.
Text within an HTML file summarising the content of the site (content meta-tag) and relevant keywords (keyword meta-tag), which are matched against the keywords typed into search engines.
Metrics (Internet Marketing)
Measures that indicate the effectiveness of Internet marketing activities in meeting customer, business and marketing objectives.
A process by which more than one component of a website may be tested in a live environment. It can be thought of in simple terms as numerous A/B tests performed on one page at the same time.
The method of finding and moving between different information and pages on a web site. It is governed by menu arrangements, site structure and the layout of individual pages.
An incentive in direct marketing or a product offering.
Online (Digital) brand
An online brand is a brand identity used for a product or company online that differs from the traditional brand.
A customer proactively agrees to receive further information by signing up to a offer, newsletter, blog etc.
The customer is only contacted when he or she has explicitly asked for information to be sent (usually when filling in an on-screen form).
The customer is not contacted subsequently if he or she has explicitly stated that he or she does not want to be contacted in future. Opt-out or unsubscribe options are usually available within the e-mail itself.
Also known as natural listings, organic listings are webpage listings that appear on a Search Engine Results Page solely because the search engine Algorithm deems them relevant to the Query.
A scale between 0 to 10 used by Google to assess the importance of web sites according to the number of inbound links or backlinks.
Paid inclusion is an advertising program offered by some search engines in which a page is guaranteed inclusion in the Index in exchange for a fee.
Paid Listings, as opposed to Natural Listings or Organic Listings, are sites that appear on a Results Page because money was paid to the search engine for inclusion and/or position. Paid listings is used as an all-inclusive term for the practices of Paid Inclusion and Paid Placement.
Paid placement is a program in which advertisers’ listings are guaranteed to appear on a Results Page when particular Keywords are searched. The ranking of paid placement listings is determined by competitive bidding.
Position reporting is the monitoring of daily changes in search engine Position for indexed URLs that have been optimized for specific keywords by a Search Engine Optimization Company.
Refers to when a company pays for text ads to be displayed on the search engine results pages when a specific keywords or phrase is entered by the search users. It is so called since the marketer pays for each time the hypertext link in the ad is clicked on.
The process of managing PPC accounts, campaigns, ad groups, and keywords.
Customers agree (opt-in) to be involved in an organisation’s marketing activities, usually as a result of an incentive.
Using design elements such as layout, copy and typography together with promotional messages to encourage site users to follow particular paths and specific actions rather than giving them complete choice in their navigation.
Individuals and organisations post online media (audio and video) which can be viewed in the appropriate players.
A web site that acts as a gateway to information and services available on the Internet by providing search engines, directories and other services such as personalised news or free e-mail.
Contact and profile information for a customer with an indication of the level of their interest in product categories.
A query is a question or instance of questioning. A search engine query is a user’s request for the information (i.e. webpages) in a search engine’s Index that is most relevant to a Keyword or set of Search Terms. Query is sometimes used to mean the actual keywords a user enters in a search box.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
Blog, news or other content is published by an XML standard and syndicated for other sites or read by users in RSS reader software services.
The process whereby an individual subscribes to a site or requests further information by filling in contact details and his or her needs using an electronic form.
Registration (of domain name)
The process of reserving a unique web address that can be used to refer to the company web site.
Consistent application of up-to-date knowledge of individual customers to product and service design, which is communicated interactively in order to develop a continuous, mutually beneficial and long-term relationship.
Return on Advertising Spend (ROAS)
This indicates amount of revenue generated from each referrer.
ROAS = Total revenue generated from referrer / Amount spent on advertising with referrer.
Return on Investment (ROI)
This indicates the profitability of any investment, or in an advertising context, for each referring site.
ROI = Profit generated from investment / Cost of investment.
ROI = Profit generated from referrers / Amount spent on advertising with referrer.
A software , also known as a spider, that is employed by search engines to index web pages of registered sites on a regular basis.
Also known as robots exclusion protocol, Robots.txt is a text file stored in a site’s root directory that tells a search engine Crawler which site pages and sub-folders should not be included in the search engine Index.
Specialised web site that uses automatic tools known as spiders or robots to index web pages of registered sites. Users can search the index by typing in keywords to specify their interest. Pages containing these keywords will be listed, and by clicking on a hyperlink the user will be taken to the site.
Search Engine Listing
The list of sites and descriptions returned by a search engine after a user types in keywords.
Search Engine Marketing (SEM)
Search engine marketing is an inclusive term for all techniques used to market a website via search engines, including Pay-Per-Click advertising and Natural Search Engine Optimization.
Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)
A structured approach used to increase the position of a company or its products in search engine natural or organic results listings for selected keywords or phrases.
Search Engine Ranking (SER)
The position of a site on a particular search engine, e.g. 1st.
Search Engine Results Page (SERPs)
Also known as a results page, the search engine results page is the collection of ranked Listings displayed in response to a search engine Query.
Search Engine Submission
Also known as search engine registration or web submission, search engine submission is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index.
Also known as keywords or query terms, search terms are the word(s) or phrase(s) a user enters into a search engine’s Query box. A Search Engine Results Page (SERP) ranks indexed sites according to how relevant the Search Engine deems them to the search terms that were queried.
An indication of how easy it is to connect to a web site as a user. In theory this figure should be 100 per cent, but for technical reasons such as failures in the server hardware or upgrades to software, sometimes users cannot access the site and the figure falls below 90 per cent.
A graphical or text depiction of the relationship between different groups of content on a web site.
Also known as Internet promotion, optimization services or search engine placement service, site optimization refers to all of the methods a Search Engine Optimization Company uses to improve a site’s Position and Page Rank and increase its Click-Through Rate and Conversion Rate.
An indication of how long a visitor stays on a site. Log file analysers can be used to assess average visit times.
One site visit records one customer visiting the site. Not equivalent to User session.
A category of sites that is based on user participation and user-generated content. They include social networking sites
like Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, or My Space, social bookmarking sites like Del.icio.us, social news sites like Digg and other sites that are centered on user interaction.
Unsolicited e-mail (usually bulk mailed and untargeted).
Bulk e-mailing of unsolicited mail.
A tool, also known as a robot, that is employed by search engines to index web pages of registered sites on a regular basis.
A preliminary page that precedes the normal home page of a web site. Site users can either wait to be redirected to the home page or can follow a link to do this.
Static (fixed) Web Page
A page on the web server that is not dynamic.
A title tag is an HTML tag which contains a sentence of text describing the contents of its associated webpage.
A domain specifically created to measure traffic delivered to a website.
Three-Way Link Exchange
A three-way link exchange is a Reciprocal Link Exchange established between three domains. However, unlike a two-way link exchange, not all three sites link to each other.
Individual visitors to a site measured through cookies or IP addresses on an individual computer.
An option to opt out from an e-mail newsletter or discussion group.
Persuading existing customers to purchase more expensive products (typically related to existing purchase categories).
A marketing message is communicated from one person to another, facilitated by different media, such as word of mouth, e-mail or web sites. Implies rapid transmission of messages is intended.
An ‘e-mail a friend or colleague’ component to an e-mail campaign or part of web site design.
A collection of web services that facilitate certain behaviours online such as community participation and user-generated content, rating and tagging.
Web Addresses (universal resource locators – URLs)
Web addresses refer to particular pages on a web server, which is hosted by a company or organisation. The technical name for web addresses is uniform or universal resource locators (URLs).
Techniques used to assess and improve the contribution of e-marketing to a business, including reviewing traffic volume, referrals, clickstreams, online reach data, customer satisfaction surveys, leads and sales.
Browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and Microsoft Internet Explorer provide an easy method of accessing and viewing information stored as HTML web documents on different web servers.
The individual assigned to administering a corporation or organisation’s web site. This person lays out the information trees, designs the look, codes HTML pages, handles editing and additions and checks that links are intact. In addition, he or she monitors, routes and sometimes responds to email generated by the site.
Web servers are used to store the web pages accessed by web browsers. They may also contain databases of customer or product information, which can be queried and retrieved using a browser.
White Hat SEO
Also known as natural search engine optimization or organic search engine optimization, white hat SEO is the legitimate use of keyword-focused copy and tags, Crawler-friendly site architecture, Search Engine Submissions and a quality Backlinks network to improve a site’s Position, Page Rank and Click-Through Rate. White hat SEO does not involve the use of Cloaking, Spam or any other Black Hat SEO techniques.
A widget is a live update on a website, webpage, or desktop. Widgets contain personalised neatly organised content or
applications selected by its user.
A web application that allows users to add content, as on an Internet forum, but also allows anyone to edit the content. Wiki also refers to the collaborative software used to create such a website.
World Wide Web (WWW)
A medium for publishing information on the Internet. It is accessed through web browsers, which display web pages and can now be used to run business applications. Company information is stored on web servers, which are usually referred to as web sites.
An advanced markup language giving better control than HTML over format for structured information on web pages.
An XML feed is a form of Paid Inclusion or Search Engine Submission in which an XML document is used to provide a search engine with information about multiple web pages.
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